Chocolate Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Alkalinisation
The process that cocoa powder is treated with alkali to neutralize its natural acids. The process darkens the cocoa and develops a milder chocolate flavor.

Bittersweet Chocolate
Dark Chocolate that contains a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor and less than 12% milk solids. Bittersweet often refers to chocolate with a minimum of 50% chocolate liquor.

Cabosse
The pod like fruit of the cocoa tree.

Cacao Paste
Cacao Mass after extra Cocoa Butter has been added and it has cooled.

Cacao
A term used for a cacao plant but also for the unprocessed product (pods) of the cacao plant.

Carraque
Solid milk chocolate or dark chocolate pieces sometimes topped with raisins, almonds, walnuts or hazelnuts.

Casting
The method of pouring ganache between plastic rulers and letting it set up to cut and dip.

Chocolate Liquor
The liquid chocolate when the cocoa nibs are ground. Even though it is given the name liquor, it contains no alcohol content.

Chocolatier
A candy maker that creates and sells chocolate confections.

Chocolate Maker
A person who creates chocolate from cacao beans and other ingredients.

Cocoa Beans
Seeds from the fruit of the cocoa tree.

Cocoa Belt
The area 20 degrees North and South of the equator where cocoa is grown.

Cocoa Butter
The vegetable fat contained in the cocoa bean.

Cocoa Content
This refers to the amount of the chocolate product that is made of the three cacao components--chocolate liquor, cocoa butter and cocoa powder.

Cocoa Mass
The liquid chocolate when the cocoa nibs are ground.

Cocoa Nib
The remaining part of the cocoa bean once the husk has been removed after the bean is fermented and roasted, often referred to as the kernel.

Cocoa Pod
Egg-shaped fruit of the cocoa tree measuring between 6 and 12 inches and hang from the trunk and the largest branches. Each fruit contains between 30 and 40 beans of about ½ an inch in length.

Cocoa Powder
The result of extracting cocoa butter from cocoa paste. Cocoa powder is used to prepare chocolate drinks, desserts, baking and chocolate decorations.

Cocoa Solids
The liquid chocolate when the cocoa nibs are ground.

Compound Coating
Cocoa butter is removed from chocolate and replaced with vegetable oil or other types of fat and blended with sugar, cocoa powder and other products to enable melting without the requirement of tempering.

Conche
Large agitators that constantly stir the chocolate. This assists in achieving desirable flavors and liquefying the refined chocolate mass.

Conching
Part of the process by which chocolate is manufactured. Cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and sugar are blended and placed in large agitators that stir the mixture under heat.

Confectionary Coating
Cocoa butter is removed from chocolate and replaced with vegetable oil or other types of fat and blended with sugar, cocoa powder and other products to enable melting without the requirement of tempering.

Couverture
Professional quality chocolate containing a high percentage of cocoa butter used to cover or coat confectionery and baked products. It usually used for dipping and coating truffles.

Crillo Bean
The criollo bean originated from Venezuela and accounts for only 5% of the all the commercial chocolate. It is the most prized, rare and expensive of cacao beans.

Dark Chocolate
Dark chocolate does not have milk as an additive and is sometimes called plain chocolate. Dark chocolate must contain a minimum of 43% cocoa to be called dark chocolate.

Dutch Process
In the early 19th century, Dutchman, Coenraad Johannes van Houten, treated cocoa powder with alkali to neutralize its natural acids. The process was called “dutching” after the creator’s heritage. The process darkens the cocoa and develops a milder chocolate flavor.

Dutching
In the early 19th century, Dutchman, Coenraad Johannes van Houten, treated cocoa powder with alkali to neutralize its natural acids. The process was called “dutching” after the creator’s heritage.The process darkens the cocoa and develops a milder chocolate flavor.

Enrobing
A chocolates-making technique when taking the center of a chocolate confection or praline and covering it with a layer of outer chocolate by pouring liquid chocolate over it or by dipping the chocolate center by hand in liquid chocolate.

Fat Bloom
The result of fat migration sometimes caused by inadequate tempering or fluctuations of temperature causing properly tempered chocolate to sweat. It is visible as a dull white film on the surface of the chocolate and may create a grainy texture when eaten.

Fondant
A mixture of sugar and water that is boiled and then kneeded and processed to use in confectionary.

Forastero Bean
This is the most common of the cacao beans and accounts for 90% of all commercial chocolate.

Ganache
A rich, silky chocolate mixture made by combining chopped chocolate and boiling cream and stirring until smooth. Some ganache may have the addition of butter, fruits, spices and different liquors.

Gianduja
A confection created by blending finely ground hazelnuts and chocolate.

Lecithin
A natural product extracted from the soybean that is used as a chocolate thinner. During the manufacturing of chocolate, lecithin increases the chocolates fluidity through the reduction of viscosity.

Malitol
A natural sugar-substitute based on a Malt-extract, which allows chocolate to keep a sweet taste without containing sugar.

Marzipan
Marzipan is a thick paste achieved by skillfully mixing melted sugar with finely chopped ground almonds.

Mexican Chocolate
True Mexican chocolate is a very rich mixture of cinnamon and vanilla.

Milk Chocolate
Chocolate with at least 10% chocolate liquor and 12% milk solids, combined with sugar, cocoa butter, lecithin and vanilla.

Molinillo
A wooden stick with rings attached to the bottom used to whip chocolate drinks to create a foamy top.

Moulding
A technique for making chocolate consisting of placing chocolate in molds to obtain a molded chocolate "shell" that is then filled and sealed with a layer of chocolate.

Nougatine
Made by heating sugar until it caramelizes and mixing finely crushed roasted hazelnuts or almonds . It is put on a caramel roller and crushed into little pieces and used as a filling for chocolate bars.

Organic
Organic refers to how the food products are produced and is based on a system of farming that maintains and replenishes the fertility of the soil. These foods are produced without chemicals, pesticides, and fertilizers. They are processed without artificial ingredients, preservatives or irradiation.

Pâte de Fruit
Confectionary composed of sugar pulps and apple pectin. The fruit percentage is more than 50% of the total confection.

Praliné
A confection made with chocolate, caramelized sugar, roasted and finely ground hazelnuts or almonds and vanilla.

Refining
The process of removing the outer skins of cacao beans and leaving a nib after they have been roasted and blended.

Semi-Sweet Chocolate
Dark Chocolate that contains a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor and less than 12% milk solids.

Single Estate Chocolate
A chocolate created using the cocoa beans from one particular estate. This can either be a blend or single variety of cocoa. This would also be classed as single origin.

Single Origin Chocolate
A chocolate created from cocoa from one particular area or region. This can either be a blend or single variety of cocoa.

Single Varietal Chocolate
A chocolate created from a single variety of cocoa.

Sugar Bloom
The result of surface moisture dissolving sugar and recrystalizing. Sugar bloom may be caused by cold chocolate being exposed to a warm humid environment resulting in condensation forming on the surface of the chocolate. Visible as a dull white film and often dry and hard to the touch.

Tempering
The process of bringing the chocolate to a certain temperature that the cocoa butter reaches its most stable crystal form. There are several forms in which the butter can crystallize, only one of which ensures the hardness, shrinking force and gloss of the finished product after it has cooled.

Theobroma Cocoa
The botanical description of the rainforest tree that produces chocolate. The name "Theobroma," comes from the ancient Greek words for "god" (Theo) and "food" (Broma).

Trinitario Bean
These beans are a natural hybrid of Criollo and Forastero that originated in Trinidad. They account for approximately 15% of all commercial chocolate.

Truffle
A confection made of chocolate, butter, sugar, and sometimes liqueur shaped into balls and often coated with cocoa. Truffles got their name from an exotic French mushroom.

Viscosity
The flow characteristics of melted chocolate.

White Chocolate
True white chocolate contains cocoa butter and is a mixture of sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin, and vanilla.

Xocoatl
The original name the Aztecs, Toltecs, Mayas and Incas gave to a stimulating drink they brewed from cocoa beans. It was a mixture of cocoa, maize (Indian corn) and water.